The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Nicholas's abdication.
The soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
Mr Maassen also warned of a “disinformation” campaign, citing false stories on the rape of a German-Russian girl called Lisa that were spread by Russian media alongside several other prominent incidents of “fake news”.
He also highlighted emails sent to Lithuanian authorities accusing German soldiers deployed to the country of rape, which sparked an investigation finding the alleged incident did not take place.
The February Revolution broke out in early March 1917 (or February, according to the Julian calendar, which the Russians used at the time); Nicholas abdicated later that month.
After Lenin’s return from exile (aided by the Germans) in mid-April, he and his fellow Bolsheviks worked quickly to seize power from the provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, Russia’s minister of war.
Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war.
Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and moderates joined Russian radical elements in calling for the overthrow of the czar.
However, the immediate cause of the February Revolution–the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917–was Russia’s disastrous involvement in World War I (1914-18).
Germany’s domestic intelligence agency expects new cyber attacks targeting politicians and government officials ahead of federal elections.
Hans-Georg Maassen, head of the Bf V agency, said spies are keeping a “very close watch” on threats as the country gears up for September’s vote.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time).